2020 januárjától a MT/DP Műhelytanulmányok és a Budapest Working Papers sorozat egybeolvadt, és a továbbiakban KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok cím alatt közli az intézet kutatóinak tudományos munkáját. A KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok célja, hogy hozzászólásokat, vitát generáljanak, nem mentek át szakmai ellenőrzésen.

A megszűnt sorozatok tanulmányai az alábbi linkeken érhetőek el:

MT/DP műhelytanulmányok

BWP műhelytanulmányok

2021

2021/27 ANNA ADAMECZ-VÖLGYI - MORAG HENDERSON - NIKKI SHURE The labor market returns to ‘first in family’ university graduates KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/27 The labor market returns to ‘first in family’ university graduates ANNA ADAMECZ-VÖLGYI - MORAG HENDERSON - NIKKI SHURE

We examine how first in family (FiF) graduates (those whose parents do not have university degrees) fare on the labor market in England. We find that among women, FiF graduates earn 7.4% less on average than graduate women whose parents have a university degree. For men, we do not find a FiF wage penalty. A decomposition of the wage difference between FiF and non-FiF graduates reveals that FiF men earn higher returns on their endowments than non-FiF men and thus compensate for their relative social disadvantage, while FiF women do not. We also show that a substantial share of the graduate gender wage gap is due to, on the one hand, women being more likely to be FiF than men and, on the other hand, that the FiF wage gap is gendered. We provide some context, offer explanations, and suggest implications of these findings.

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2021/26 ANNA ADAMECZ-VÖLGYI – ÁGNES SZABÓ-MORVAI Confidence in public institutions is critical in containing the COVID-19 pandemic KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/26 Confidence in public institutions is critical in containing the COVID-19 pandemic ANNA ADAMECZ-VÖLGYI – ÁGNES SZABÓ-MORVAI

This paper investigates the relative importance of confidence in public institutions in explaining cross-country differences in the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. We extend the related literature by employing regression and machine learning methods to identify the most critical predictors of deaths attributed to the pandemic. We find that a one standard deviation increase (e.g., the actual difference between the US and Finland) in confidence is associated with 350.9 (95% CI -531.922 – -169.831, p=0.000) fewer predicted deaths per million inhabitants. Confidence in public institutions is one of the most important predictors of deaths attributed to COVID-19, compared to country-level measures of individual health risks, the health system, demographics, economic and political development, and social capital. Our results suggest that effective policy implementation requires citizens to cooperate with their governments, and willingness to cooperate relies on confidence in public institutions.

 

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2021/25 Tamás Keller – Károly Takács – Felix Elwert Yes, You Can! Effects of Transparent Admission Standards on High School Track Choice: A Randomized Field Experiment KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/25 Yes, You Can! Effects of Transparent Admission Standards on High School Track Choice: A Randomized Field Experiment Tamás Keller – Károly Takács – Felix Elwert

High school track choice determines college access in many countries. We hypothesize that some qualified students avoid the college-bound track simply because they overestimate admission requirements. To test this hypothesis, we designed a randomized field experiment that communicated the admission standards of local secondary schools on the academic track to students in Hungary before the application deadline. We targeted the subset of students (“seeds”) who occupied the most central position in the classroom-social networks, aiming to detect both direct effects on the track choice of targeted seeds and spillover effects on their untreated peers. We found neither a direct effect nor a spillover effect on students’ applications or admissions on average. Further analyses, however, revealed theoretically plausible heterogeneity in the direct causal effect of the intervention on the track choice of targeted seeds. Providing information about admission standards increased applications and admissions to secondary schools on the academic track among seeds who had a pre-existing interest in the academic track but were unsure of their chances of admission. This demonstrates that publicizing admissions standards can set students on a more ambitious educational trajectory. We discuss implications for theory and policy.

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2021/24 KARSAI JUDIT Állami segítséggel történő startup finanszírozás nemzetközi tapasztalatai KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/24 Állami segítséggel történő startup finanszírozás nemzetközi tapasztalatai KARSAI JUDIT

Az államnak fontos szerepe van a startupok minden egyes fejlődési szakaszának finanszírozásában. A startupok finanszírozásának túlnyomó részét vissza nem térítendő állami támogatás és a hitelnyújtás biztosítja, mely utóbbit állami garanciavállalás is segíti. A kockázati tőke szerepe sokkal kisebb. Az állam azonban ezt is segítheti, mégpedig elsősorban a privát befektetőkkel való társfinanszírozás és a privát kockázati tőkealapok tőkéjének megemelése révén. A kockázati tőkealapok feltőkésítésének előmozdításához fontos eszköz az alapok privát befektetői által igénybe vehető állami garancia. Az állam a startupok finanszírozásában legeredményesebben nem a cégeknek közvetlenül nyújtott pénzeszközökkel, hanem a finanszírozás katalizátoraként, a piac privát szereplőinek ösztönzésével tud részt venni. Az alábbi elemzés bemutatja, hogy az állami segítség nemzetközileg kialakult megoldásai közül melyek és milyen sikerrel terjedtek el.

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2021/23 ANNA BARANOWSKA-RATAJ – ZOLTÁN ELEKES – RIKARD ERIKSSON Escaping from Low-Wage Employment: The Role of Co-worker Networks KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/23 Escaping from Low-Wage Employment: The Role of Co-worker Networks ANNA BARANOWSKA-RATAJ – ZOLTÁN ELEKES – RIKARD ERIKSSON

Low-wage jobs are often regarded as dead-ends in the labour market careers of young people. Previous research focused on disentangling to what degree the association between a low-wage job at the start of working life and limited chances of transitioning to better-paid employment is causal or spurious. Less attention has been paid to the channels that may facilitate the upward wage mobility of low-wage workers. We focus on such mechanisms, and we scrutinize the impact of social ties to higher-educated co-workers. Due to knowledge spillovers, job referrals, as well as firm-level productivity gains, having higher-educated co-workers may improve an individual’s chances of transitioning to a better-paid job. We use linked employer-employee data from longitudinal Swedish registers and panel data models that incorporate measures of low-wage workers’ social ties to higher-educated co-workers. Our results confirm that having social ties to higher-educated co-workers increases individual chances of transitioning to better-paid employment.

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2021/22 ANIKÓ BÍRÓ – RÉKA BRANYICZKI – PÉTER ELEK The Effect of Involuntary Retirement on Healthcare Use and Health Status KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/22 The Effect of Involuntary Retirement on Healthcare Use and Health Status ANIKÓ BÍRÓ – RÉKA BRANYICZKI – PÉTER ELEK

We analyse the causal effect of involuntary retirement on detailed indicators of healthcare use and health status. Our identification strategy is based on a pension reform in Hungary which forced public sector workers above the statutory retirement age to full time retirement. Using rich administrative data, we find that on the three-year horizon, involuntary retirement decreases the number of primary care doctor visits, the consumption of antiinfectives for systemic use and drugs of the respiratory system, and the non-zero spending on antiinfectives, the drugs of the alimentary tract and metabolism and of the cardiovascular system. We also find that the impact on the latter two drug categories is driven by the drop in income due to involuntary retirement. The effects of involuntary retirement are comparable to the short-run effects of voluntary retirement, identified from a change in the statutory retirement age. We conclude that there is little evidence for health deteriorating effects of involuntary retirement and provide explanations for the possible mechanisms behind our results.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2021/21 TAMÁS KELLER – PÉTER SZAKÁL Not just words! Effects of a light-touch randomized encouragement intervention on students’ exam grades, self-efficacy, motivation, and test anxiety KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/21 Not just words! Effects of a light-touch randomized encouragement intervention on students’ exam grades, self-efficacy, motivation, and test anxiety TAMÁS KELLER – PÉTER SZAKÁL

Motivated by the self-determination theory of psychology, we ask how simple school practices can forge students’ engagement with the academic aspect of school life. We carried out a large-scale preregistered randomized field experiment with a crossover design, involving all the students of the University of Szeged in Hungary. Our intervention consisted of an automated encouragement message that praised students’ past achievements and signaled trust in their success. The treated students received encouragement messages before their exam via two channels: e-mail and SMS message. Control students did not receive any encouragement. Our primary analysis compared the end-of-semester exam grades of the treated and control students, obtained from the university’s registry. Our secondary analysis explored the difference between the treated and control students’ self-efficacy, motivation, and test anxiety, obtained from an online survey before students’ exams. In the whole sample, we did not find an average treatment effect on students’ exam grades. However, in the subsample of those who answered the endline survey, the treated students reported higher self-efficacy than the control students. The treatment affected students’ motivation before their first exam—but not before their second—and did not affect students’ test anxiety. Our results indicate that automated encouragement messages sent shortly before exams do not boost students’ exam grades. Nevertheless, since occasionally received light-touch encouragement messages instantly increased students’ self-efficacy even before an academically challenging exam situation, we conclude that encouraging students systematically and not just shortly before their exams might lead to positive emotional involvement and help create a school climate that engages students with the academic aspect of school life.

 

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2021/18 BALÁZS LENGYEL – GUILHERME KENJI CHIHAYA – LÁSZLÓ LŐRINCZ – RIKARD ERIKSSON Co-worker networks and firm performance KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/18 Co-worker networks and firm performance BALÁZS LENGYEL – GUILHERME KENJI CHIHAYA – LÁSZLÓ LŐRINCZ – RIKARD ERIKSSON

Firms and employees can benefit from information diffusion through social connections at other firms. Therefore, co-worker networks observed in collaborative projects or assumed from job co-occurrence have been analyzed in a wide literature ranging from management to economics, and economic geography. Yet, beyond case-studies, the actual information flows are seldom identifiable in these networks and previous focus on firm- or employee benefits was mainly limited to dyadic relations across firms. To address this gap, we simulate co-worker networks within firms from large-scale administrative data, for which we use parameters fitted to information networks that we collected with a survey and from social media profiles. Then, following all individuals through job moves over their career, we establish the dynamic co-worker network across firms of the entire ICT industry in Sweden. Fixed-effect regression models suggest that growth of average income is significantly higher in those firms that have diverse connections but are central to the network as well. We find that large firms benefit more from triadic closure in the co-worker network, stressing the role cohesive relations in sharing complex knowledge. Our results highlight that firm growth is embedded into the eco-system of co-worker networks that facilitate information flows across firms.

 

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2021/20 LÁSZLÓ HALPERN Product Quality and Innovation Hungarian Firm Level Data KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/20 Product Quality and Innovation Hungarian Firm Level Data LÁSZLÓ HALPERN

Innovation enhances other performance indicators of a firm beside productivity. Buyers are ready to pay higher price for higher quality or more suitable products due to innovation. Product prices, however, reflect the market position of the firm, too. Demand functions estimated using transaction level trade and domestic sales data yield firm level aggregated measure for quality. Productivity, size and foreign ownership increase, while innovation decreases our quality measure. Deeper analysis of innovation is needed in order to understand the reason for these seemingly contradicting results.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf) Legfrissebb változat (2021.06.11.)
2021/19 OBLATH GÁBOR “Nominális”, reálgazdasági és árszintfelzárkózás az Európai Unióban 1995 és 2019 között KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/19 “Nominális”, reálgazdasági és árszintfelzárkózás az Európai Unióban 1995 és 2019 között OBLATH GÁBOR

Az országok közötti jelentős fejlettségi különbségek árszintkülönbségekkel járnak együtt, és a fejlettségi szintek közeledését – a reálgazdasági konvergenciát – hosszabb távon az árszintek közeledése kíséri. Bár az egy főre jutó GDP-szintek folyó árfolyamon történő, vagyis nominális összehasonlítása alkalmatlan a fejlettségi különbségeknek és az országok közötti reálgazdasági közeledésnek a kifejezésére, a relatív nominális szintek változásának reál- és ár-összetevőre való felbontása megmutatja, hogy egy fejletlen ország „nominális felzárkózása” mennyiben származik abból, hogy az előállított javak egy főre jutó mennyisége relatíve bővült, illetve abból, hogy a javak, azonos pénzben kifejezve, viszonylag megdrágultak. A relatív nominális változások kétféle szemléletnek megfelelő statisztikai forrás alapján bonthatók ár-, illetve reálösszetevőre, amelyek az Európai Unió (EU) több tagországára nézve eltérő jelzéseket adnak az ár-, illetve reálfelzárkózás alakulásáról. Az alternatív felbontások eredményei azonban megegyeznek abban, hogy az EU közép- és kelet európai tagországainak gyors „nominális felzárkózása” 1995 és 2008 között nagyobb részben az euróban kifejezett árszint-felzárkózáshoz (a valuták reálfelértékelődéséhez) köthető, és a 2008 utáni időszak „nominális elakadása” a relatív árszint-felzárkózás megtorpanásához/megfordulásának tulajdonítható: a GDP/fő-vel mért reálfelzárkózás lassult ugyan, de nem állt meg.

Mellékletek a műhelytanulmány alapján készült, a Külgazdaság 2021/9-10. számában publikált, A „nominális felzárkózás” időben változó összetevői: reálgazdasági és árszintfelzárkózás az Európai Unióban 1995 és 2019 között című cikkhez.

 

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2021/17 GERGŐ TÓTH – SÁNDOR JUHÁSZ – ZOLTÁN ELEKES– BALÁZS LENGYEL Repeated collaboration of inventors across European regions KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/17 Repeated collaboration of inventors across European regions GERGŐ TÓTH – SÁNDOR JUHÁSZ – ZOLTÁN ELEKES– BALÁZS LENGYEL

This paper explores the spatial patterns and underlying determinants of repeated inventor collaboration across European NUTS 3 regions. It is found that only a small fraction of co-inventor linkages across regions are repeated, while community detection reveals that these collaborations are clustered in geographical space more intensively compared with collaboration in general. Additional results from gravity modelling indicate that links in the inter-regional co-patenting network emerge mainly through the triadic collaboration of regions, while geographical proximity becomes the most influential factor for repeating co-inventor ties. In addition to that, the combination of technological similarity and shared third partner regions offer a premium for the likelihood of repeating collaboration, but only when geographical proximity is present as an enabler.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2021/16 GERGŐ TÓTH – JOHANNES WACHS – RICCARDO DI CLEMENTE – ÁKOS JAKOBI – BENCE SÁGVÁRI – JÁNOS KERTÉSZ – BALÁZS LENGYEL Inequality is rising where social network segregation interacts with urban topology KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2021/16 Inequality is rising where social network segregation interacts with urban topology GERGŐ TÓTH – JOHANNES WACHS – RICCARDO DI CLEMENTE – ÁKOS JAKOBI – BENCE SÁGVÁRI – JÁNOS KERTÉSZ – BALÁZS LENGYEL

Social networks amplify inequalities by fundamental mechanisms of social tie formation such as homophily and triadic closure. These forces sharpen social segregation, which is reflected in fragmented social network structure. Geographical impediments such as distance and physical or administrative boundaries also reinforce social segregation. Yet, less is known about the joint relationships between social network structure, urban geography, and inequality. In this paper we analyze an online social network and find that the fragmentation of social networks is significantly higher in towns in which residential neighborhoods are divided by physical barriers such as rivers and railroads. Towns in which neighborhoods are relatively distant from the center of town and amenities are spatially concentrated are also more socially segregated. Using a two-stage model, we show that these urban geography features have significant relationships with income inequality via social network fragmentation. In other words, the geographic features of a place can compound economic inequalities via social networks.

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