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Műhelytanulmányok

Automation risk along individual careers: static and dynamic upgrades in cities

LÁSZLÓ CZALLER – RIKARD ERIKSSON – BALÁZS LENGYEL

2020/28

Automation risk of workers prevails less in large cities compared to small cities, but little is known about the drivers of this emerging urban phenomenon. We examine the role of cities on changes in automation risk through individual careers of workers by separating labour mobility to a city from labour mobility within a city. Applying panel data representing all Swedish workers from 2005 to 2013 we provide new evidence that working in, or moving to, metropolitan areas lower automation risk of workers. We find that high-skilled workers enjoy dynamic occupation upgrades in cities and benefit from accumulating experience in the urban labour market, while low-skilled workers experience a single static upgrade when moving to a city.

2020

Az ingázási időre ható tényezők és változásuk 1990 és 2011 között Magyarországon

BAKÓ TAMÁS – KÁLMÁN JUDIT

2020/57

Az ingázással töltött idő hatással lehet a munkakínálatra és nagymértékben befolyásolja az egyén jólétét. Jelen tanulmányunk egyik legjelentősebb eredménye, hogy míg a nemzetközi irodalom szerint a férfiak és a nők ingázása közötti időben mutatkozó különbség stabil, addig Magyarországon a vizsgált időszakban ez nem volt igaz: az adatok arra engednek következtetni, hogy a nők egyre jobban felzárkóztak a férfiakhoz mind a foglalkoztatás esélyében, mind az ingázási időben, illetve a megtett távolságban. Számos egyéni, valamint a helyi munkaerőpiacot jellemző változó hatását vizsgáltuk, ám eredményeink szerint a lakóhely földrajzi elhelyezkedése lényegesen nagyobb hatással bír az ingázási időre, mint bármelyik egyéni szintű változó (kivéve a foglalkozás). A Közép-magyarországi régióban lakókhoz képest az ország bármelyik másik régiójában lakók napi 17–30 perccel rövidebb ingázási idővel számolhatnak, ami komoly kihatással lehet az ingázás társadalmi költségeire és jóléti hatásaira.

2020

Centralized Clearing Mechanisms in Financial Networks: A Programming Approach

PÉTER CSÓKA – P. JEAN-JACQUES HERINGS

2022/08

We consider financial networks where agents are linked to each other with financial contracts. A centralized clearing mechanism collects the initial endowments, the liabilities and the division rules of the agents and determines the payments to be made. A division rule specifies how the assets of the agents should be rationed, the four most common ones being the proportional, the priority, the constrained equal awards, and the constrained equal losses division rules. Since payments made depend on payments received, we are looking for solutions to a system of equations. The set of solutions is known to have a lattice structure, leading to the existence of a least and a greatest clearing payment matrix. Previous research has shown how decentralized clearing selects the least clearing payment matrix. We present a centralized approach towards clearing in order to select the greatest clearing payment matrix. To do so, we formulate the determination of the greatest clearing payment matrix as a programming problem. When agents use proportional division rules, this programming problem corresponds to a linear programming problem. We show that for the other common division rules, it can be written as an integer linear programming problem.

2022

Cheating in primary school: Experimental evidence on ego-depletion and individual factors

TAMÁS KELLER – HUBERT JÁNOS KISS – SZABOLCS SZÁMADÓ

2020/48

We contribute to the experimental literature on primary school students’ cheating behavior by studying i) how cheating is influenced by ego depletion; ii) how it correlates with different individual factors. We carried out a large-scale, pre-registered experiment in the field of 28 Hungarian primary schools (126 classrooms) on a voluntary subsample of 1,143 students at grade levels 4 to 8. Students’ cheating behavior was measured by the incentivized dice-roll experiment. We find suggestive evidence that our light-touch treatment on ego-depletion increased students’ deceptive behavior. Cheating behavior correlated weakly with students’ individual characteristics. In a multivariate context controlling for between-classroom differences, we document that students’ cognitive ability correlated negatively, while their age positively, with their cheating behavior. We found students’ social context (their classroom belonging) as a more decisive determinant of students’ cheating behavior than individual characteristics.

2020

Co-worker networks and firm performance

BALÁZS LENGYEL – GUILHERME KENJI CHIHAYA – LÁSZLÓ LŐRINCZ – RIKARD ERIKSSON

2021/18

Firms and employees can benefit from information diffusion through social connections at other firms. Therefore, co-worker networks observed in collaborative projects or assumed from job co-occurrence have been analyzed in a wide literature ranging from management to economics, and economic geography. Yet, beyond case-studies, the actual information flows are seldom identifiable in these networks and previous focus on firm- or employee benefits was mainly limited to dyadic relations across firms. To address this gap, we simulate co-worker networks within firms from large-scale administrative data, for which we use parameters fitted to information networks that we collected with a survey and from social media profiles. Then, following all individuals through job moves over their career, we establish the dynamic co-worker network across firms of the entire ICT industry in Sweden. Fixed-effect regression models suggest that growth of average income is significantly higher in those firms that have diverse connections but are central to the network as well. We find that large firms benefit more from triadic closure in the co-worker network, stressing the role cohesive relations in sharing complex knowledge. Our results highlight that firm growth is embedded into the eco-system of co-worker networks that facilitate information flows across firms.

 

2021